The study of implementation methods and strategies

As noted above, implementation science is the scientific study of methods and strategies to promote the systematic uptake and integration of research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice. [1,2] The emergence of implementation science was in part a response to the realisation that implementation is not a simple linear process. Understanding those factors that impact on implementation success helps to target resources and optimise out comes. From an early focus on identifying barriers and facilitators, it now extends to developing and refining theories and frameworks to guide improved implementation of evidence. [2] The outcomes of interest therefore include: [2]

  • Acceptability
  • Adoption
  • Appropriateness
  • Feasibility
  • Fidelity
  • Implementation cost
  • Penetration
  • Sustainability

Worldwide interest has seen the emergence of implementation journals including:

This has been accompanied by the establishment of organisations to facilitate and foster evidence implementation such as the Sydney Health Partners Implementation science group.

As with implementation, planning is the starting point for implementation science. To enhance delivery, many implementation studies investigate both the effectiveness of the EBP change and the approach to implementation. That is, they combine implementation and implementation science.

  1. Eccles MP, Mittman BS. Welcome to Implementation Science [editorial]. Implement Sci. 2006;1:1.
  2. Barwick M, Dubrowski R, Petricca, K. Knowledge translation: The rise of implementation (1.32MB pdf). Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. 2020 Nov.

Page created 28 March 2022